Surigao del Norte is located at the Northeastern part of Mindanao between 125o 15’ to 126o 15’ east longitude and 9o 18’ to 10o 30’ north latitude. It is bounded on the North and East by the Pacific Ocean, on the South by the Provinces of Agusan del Norte and Surigao del Sur and on the West by the Surigao Strait.
Capital: Surigao City
The province is composed of the mainland, Siargao and Bucas Grande islands with a total land area of 201,710 hectares (based on the updated DENR-GIS Generated Land Area).
Of this total, the mainland portion occupies 138,914 hectares and Siargao Island has 62,796 hectares. The biggest land area is Claver (31,534 hectares or 15.63%) and followed by Surigao City (26,117 hectares or 10.95%). Burgos, on the other hand, has the smallest area equivalent to 0.97% of the total.
The mainland portion of the province has a varied terrain ranging from flat, to rugged to mountainous. A mountain range located along the boundary of the municipalities of Tubod, Bacuag and Mainit is Mt. Diwata. On the north eastern part of Sison – Placer – Mainit boundary is Mt. Buhangin with an elevation of 664 meters and flanking the western side along the boundary of Mainit – San Francisco is Mt. Tendido with an elevation of 865 meters.
Two common mountain range namely: Mt. Satellite having an elevation of 1,016 meters and Mt. Agudo with 1,018 meters above sea level are found in Malimono.
Adjoining the municipality of Alegria and the municipality of Kitcharao in Agusan del Norte is Mt. Kabutan with an elevation of 975 meters. At the southeastern part bordering Surigao del Sur and Municipality of Claver lies Mt. Legaspi with an elevation of 1,170 meters above sea level.
The terrain in Siargao Island is predominantly rolling to steep. The highest elevation is 291 meters above sea level located along the middle Bucas Grande Island. On the western and southern sides of the island are broad expanse of mangrove swamps and broad reef flats. The island is proximate to the Philippine Deep which is 10,700 meters below sea level and considered as the deepest part of the trench.
The soil in the province is basically clay and sandy loam type. The soil in the mainland area is generally classified as loam soil (60% Anao-aon/Malimono clay loam, 20% kabatohan clay loam and 20% Malalag clay loam) characterized as permeable, moderately drained and highly suitable for agriculture.
The soil type in Siargao Island is 80% Bolinao clay, 10% Bolinao clay steep phase, and 5% Jamoyaon clay loam. The island of Bucas Grande is highly acidic due to the presence of mineral ores thereby needing careful soil management.
The province falls under climate type II characterized by no pronounced dry season but with a very pronounced maximum rainfall period from November to January. It has a total annual rainfall of 2,617.90 mm from the 183 rainy days in 2019. Temperature ranges from a low of 22.5oC in February to a high 34.3oC in May.
The alienable and disposable land (A&D) is estimated at 95,969 hectares (47.58%) of which 71,632 hectares are in Surigao Mainland while the 24,337 hectares are in Siargao and Bucas Grande Islands.
Of the total land area, 11,123 hectares has been utilized for settlement areas, 97,640 hectares are agricultural areas, fishpond has 1,341 hectares, production forest is 17,427 hectares while other forest areas categorized as open and closed forest total to 30,175 hectares, 8,235 hectares for mining and industrial use, 765 hectares are tourism areas, 14,162 hectares are mangrove areas while only 41 hectares are utilized as military reservations. A total of 20,801 hectares are for other land uses, of which 6,530 hectares are shrub land, 5,384 hectares are grassland, 8,531 hectares are brush land and 356 hectares are considered barren.